Cover Image

Klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid en empowerment. Over Te Woon en andere initiatieven van woningcorporaties

Sake Zijlstra


Central to this dissertation are client driven housing management from housing associations in The Netherlands and the empowerment effects this management has on its tenants. The central issue includes what client driven housing management is (definition), in which ways this can be devised, what the envisioned effects are and which effects this management successfully accomplishes. These are answered by means of seven sub questions. The focal point of this research shifts from an exploration of all the initiatives that can be found in client driven housing management, to the empowerment effect for its tenants of ‘Te Woon’ as one of these initiatives. In this summary the answers to the seven sub questions are briefly given.

What is client driven housing management (1) is answered by means of a literature study. In this dissertation client driven housing management is defined as “the management which actively involves the tenants in policy formulation and policy implementation concerning the housing quality, price and/or property rights of dwellings”. This definition includes initiatives ranging from kitchen improvement programmes offering a choice of designs, to programme formulation to improve neighbourhood quality. ‘Te Woon’ (also known as ‘the clients’ choice programme’) is included in this definition since it gives the tenants the opportunity to own a home and have control over the home. This has effect on the composition and quality of the (social) housing stock.

Contrary to normal sales programmes, Te Woon offers the tenants to purchase a dwelling with a discount and offers them a shared risk (by splitting profit or loss at the moment of re-sale between housing association and owner).

Moreover, the housing association is obliged to re-buy the home at the moment the tenant offers it. In this way the dwelling always re-enters the housing associations’ portfolio and doesn’t get lost from the social housing stock.

How can client driven housing management initiatives be ordered and valuated (2) is answered by using different approaches to management and tenant influence devised from literature. Housing associations in the Netherlands are limited in their actions and operations by law (amongst others the BBSH). The law prescribes certain main tasks to housing associations and several policy domains have been used to determine the policy subjects that can be addressed.

The influence the tenants can have on these subjects can be valuated by using the ladder of citizen participation. The ladder illustrates the grade to which the tenant has actually a say in matters and thus shares control with the housing association. In the most extreme case the tenant gets the full control over the dwelling by obtaining the property rights. Limitations are to be found in the legal system which prescribes the basic division of property rights between owners and users and in the laws concerning the rental housing market.

Based on a theoretical exploration of the opportunities for the transfer of control from the housing association to the tenants by comparing the grades of citizen control with the policy domains, one domain proves to be promising. The policy domain of ‘dwelling purchase and sale’ offers the most opportunities to transfer control since in the extreme case the tenant could own its own dwelling, the tenant gets full property rights and thus transcends the ladder of citizen participation. The policy domain purchase and sale of dwellings thus offers the most opportunities to provide tenants with freedom, autonomy and personal development (empowerment).

Which initiatives in client driven housing management can be found in the Dutch housing associations’ practice (3) is answered based on a survey amongst associations. The housing associations that participated reckoned every initiative that gave the tenant more than a single option to client driven housing management. The analysis of the initiatives mentioned by the housing associations showed that a few types of client driven housing management were numerous. Moreover, the analysis showed that the initiatives are rather limited to the housing policy domains concerning housing maintenance and improvement and purchase and sale of dwellings.

The opportunities offered to the tenants have been analysed using participation grades. The initiatives aim to offer tenants individual choice, focused on the interior of the dwelling (kitchens etc.) and offer mostly a choice between options: delegated (and limited) choices. Within the domain of purchase and sale of dwellings (including especially Te Woon) individual choice to own is stimulated and provides with different initiatives sharing risk and offering reductions on sales prices. The initiatives aiming on the option to buy offer the best perspective on personal development by offering the opportunity of transferring full control to the tenant. All the other initiatives that were found transfer less control and offer a limited choice and limited control to the tenants.

Which effects are envisioned as a result of client driven housing management (4) is answered through a literature review. The literature revealed a broad spectrum of effects ranging from housing quality and market effects to tenant empowerment and cultivating citizenship. Tenant empowerment in all her different forms is the core of this dissertation.

Empowerment can be interpreted in notions of power. Power can point at authority, energy and capacity. Authority empowerment describes the rights and duties and lines up with the property rights. It describes what you are allowed to do with a dwelling. Energy empowerment describes the motivation to act, the willingness. Energy empowerment can be devised in meaningfulness (caring), choice (freedom of choice and availability of choice options), impact (the expected cause-effect relation, knowledge of results) and competence (feeling and being capable to act). Capacity empowerment describes the ability to act and can be measured in scales for control (influence on own life and circumstances), self image (self esteem) and security (feeling safe at home). Economical empowerment can be mentioned as a fourth form of empowerment. It is defined as the opportunity to profit. For example this can be by offering a reduction on the price thereby making the home affordable and providing the opportunity to save by means of the mortgage and to profit by means of selling at a higher price.

The different forms of empowerment are interrelated. Within energy empowerment, capacity empowerment aspects are enclosed. Without the authority or the right to act, the opportunity to profit can be denied. But willing and feeling able to act and having the right to do so, are related as well: when someone thinks (s)he isn’t able to do something, this (negatively) influences the will to act.

The choice option to own a dwelling is, theoretically speaking, again the most promising initiative within client driven housing management since it possibly touches upon the willingness, the abilities, the rights (to be allowed) and the possibility of profiting.

What are the effects that housing associations aim for with Te Woon (5) is answered by means of interviewing housing associations’ staff. The motivation for the Te Woon initiative can be traced back to the ideals of the paternalistic housing associations: to educate people in housing. Nowadays this paternalistic view on housing of the housing associations shares importance with a (internal) financial motive. Housing associations (since they have been privatised) are in need of cash flow to keep their maintenance and redevelopment tasks going. The housing associations expect as an effect of Te Woon both financial revenues and tenant empowerment at the same time.

The option to buy gives tenants the opportunity to control their dwelling and gain (some) control over their living environment. It should thereby lead to an improvement in the living quality in the neighbourhood and improve the independence of the tenants. However, the need to sell dwellings to generate cash flow for reinvestment, conflicts with the freedom of choice of the tenants. Housing associations are tempted to improve the amount of sold homes by putting pressure upon tenants to buy.

Besides, the housing associations’ staff expects different short and long term effects from Te Woon. Tenant empowerment can be found in different forms as an envisioned effect (ranging from improving independence to improving participation and engagement and from personal development to improving their financial position). Other envisioned effects include a positive effect on the living quality in the neighbourhood, alongside with housing quality differentiation (both in homes as in tenants). Long term effects that are mentioned include an improvement in the general functioning of the housing market.

What are the empowerment effects that tenants expect from Te Woon (6) is answered by means of explorative in depth interviews with tenants. Although tenants do expect effects of Te Woon, they do express hesitations and reservations in their expectations.

Tenants do believe that owner occupiers take better care of their home and that sales will improve the living quality in the neighbourhood. However, they do not expect a swift change. In addition, they ask for a more active attitude from the housing association in the approach of problems in the living and neighbourhood quality and ask the association to speak up (in their name) towards the municipality.

From the interviews it becomes clear that the tenants experience only little effect on energy empowerment aspects. The experiences of impact and choice are limited by the experience of competence and lack of meaningfulness of the option to buy. As the tenants state “this (rental) house is my own home allready” and thus buying the property doesn’t add that much. Unless there can be a financial benefit from owning by reducing the regular (monthly) costs. Only the tenants who actually became homeowners and the tenants who are considering the option to buy in the future, possibly experienced energy empowerment. The owner occupiers indeed experienced both authority and economical empowerment.

What are the actual experienced empowerment effects of Te Woon (7) is evaluated based on a telephone survey among tenants. The effects of sale and the influence of the choice option within Te Woon are approached by means of energy and capacity empowerment.

Making use of the capacity empowerment scales for control, self image and security, the experiences of tenants have been evaluated. The results illustrate that owner occupiers already experienced more capacity empowerment than the rental tenants. Owner occupiers experience higher levels of control and this is related to the higher education and incomes they already had. The rental tenants derive more security from the home and even more when they experience less control. The actual tenancy (owner occupied or rental) and the authority empowerment (property rights position) seem to be inversely related to capacity empowerment. The rental home is a safe haven for the tenants while owner occupiers the experience more freedom to act with their home (as a result of the property rights they have gained). The owner occupiers who decided to buy for the reduced price seem to have experienced empowerment in all the forms. This groups’ characteristics are similar to the rental tenants when it comes to income, education and general trust. The fact that they decided to buy (with a reduction) and feel like normal home owners, points at an empowerment effect in all four forms.

All the home owners experience authority empowerment and all owner occupiers are likely to benefit financially (economical empowerment). The empowerment effect among rental tenants, however limited, could be present. Small indicators point at an empowerment effect through competence (energy empowerment) by means of improving their knowledge about tenancies and the financial schemes involved in owning a home. This indication is mostly found among tenants who consider buying in the future.

Among the owner occupiers indicators for a disempowerment effect have been discovered as well. Their self image is relatively less positive compared to the rental tenants. This might be explained by a shift of reference group: from rental tenants to owner occupiers.

It can be concluded that Te Woon enables the empowered to buy their rental dwelling rather than that Te Woon empowers its tenants. Income and experience of control along with meaningfulness and the expected impact, seem to be predictors for the choice to buy. Rather than that these are influenced by Te Woon.

Considering client driven housing management it can be concluded that the most promising initiative, Te Woon, offers the tenants the option to actively be a part of housing policy. The transfer of (property) rights and duties from the housing association to the tenant offers the opportunity to be in control over the dwelling. The provisions in the contracts, such as reduced price and shared risks, cater for more differentiated homes in the housing stock. The owner occupiers profit both directly considering authority and economical empowerment. However, the contribution of Te Woon to energy and capacity empowerment remains diffuse. As a result, it is safe to conclude that the expectations are overexaggerated. The effects of Te Woon on, for example, the living quality in neighbourhoods are not tangible yet. Moreover, the tenants themselves have less high expectations.

In relation to other initiatives in client driven housing management, some tentative conclusions can be drawn. Offering individual choices have proven to be limited to choices from a limited set of options. As a result and within the boundaries of regulations, there is no transfer of rights and duties and thus cannot be spoken of authority empowerment. At most there is a delegated (limited) choice that can be made by the tenants. The development of initiatives delegating control could be further explored. Just as experiments with collective control. The question remains what the goals of initiatives like these should be and whether these are realistic expectations of the initiatives.


housing; housing management; social housing; TU Delft; Te Woon; housing quality; Real Estate & Housing

Full Text:

PDF ePUB Colour B/W


Aaker, D. A. (1984). Developing business strategies. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Aedes. (2003). Dordtse corporatie matcht huurders. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2004). Neem zelf het heft in handen. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2005). Volledige liberalisatie biedt kansen. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2006). Klant krijgt regie bij Site. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2007). Mondige klanten kiezen zelt. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2008). Bewonersparticipatie komt moeizaam tot stand. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2009). Vraaggestuurd onderhoud Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Aedes. (2010). Keukenkeuzeprogrammas zijn grootgoed. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Agentschap NL. (2010). Steeds meer energielabels afgegeven. Retrieved from the Agentschap NL website:

Akey, T. M., Marquis J. G., & Ross, M. E. (2000). Validation of scores on the psychological empowerment scale: a measure of empowerment for parents of children with a disability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(3), 419-438. doi:10.1177/00131640021970637

Ansoff, H. I. (1984). Implanting strategic management. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

Ariely, D. (2009). Predictably irrational, the hidden forces that shape our decisions. New York, NY: Harper-Collinns.

Ariely, D. (2010). The upside of irrationality, the unexpected benefits of defying logic at work and at home, New York, NY: Harper-Collins.

Arnstein, S. R. (1969). "A Ladder of Citizen Participation". Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216-224. doi:10.1080/01944366908977225

Atkinson, R. (1999). Discourses of Partnership and Empowerment in Contemporary British Urban Regeneration. Urban Studies, 36(1), 59-72. doi:10.1080/0042098993736

Baarda, D. B., & Goede, M. P. M. de. (1997). Basisboek methoden en technieken, praktische handleiding voor het opzetten en uitvoeren van onderzoek. Houten, Netherlands: Stenfert Kroese.

Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy, In: V. S. Ramachaudran (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4 pp. 71-81). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Bel, E. J. van. (2007). Kloteklanten: de klant als noodzakelijk kwaad. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Bergeijk, E. van, Kokx, A., Bolt, G. & Kempen, R. van. (2008). Helpt herstructurering? Delft, Netherlands: Eburon.

BiZa. (2010). Regeling van de Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties van 3november 2010, nr. BJZ2010028548 houdende het bepalen van de taken die toegelaten instellingen als bedoeld in artikel70 van de Woningwet als diensten van algemeen economisch belang met compensatie kunnen uitvoeren, en daarmee verband houdende bepalingen (Tijdelijke regeling diensten van algemeen economisch belang toegelaten instellingen volkshuisvesting). The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie BZK.

Blokland, H. (2001). De Modernisering en Haar Politieke Gevolgen: Weber, Mannheim en Schumpeter. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Boom.

Blokland, H. (1995). Wegen naar Vrijheid: Autonomie Emancipatie en Cultuur in de Westerse Wereld (volledig herziene versie van Vrijheid, Autonomie, Emancipatie). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Boom.

Blokland, T. (2003). Urban Bonds. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity.

Blokland, T. (2008). Oog voor elkaar. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

Bobbe, L. & Leimerink, L. (2006). Empowerment in de volkshuisvesting, Tijdsdocument. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Boelhouwer, P. J. (1988). De verkoop van woningwetwoningen, de overdracht van woningwetwoningen aan bewoners en de gevolgen voor de volkshuisvesting. Utrecht, Netherlands: Elinkwijk.

Boelhouwer, P. J. (2005). The incomplete privitazition of the Dutch housing market: exploding house prices versus falling house-building output. Journal of Housing and the built environment, 20(4), 262-378. doi:10.1007/s10901-005-9022-5

Boelhouwer, P. J., Bouwmeester H., & Heijden H. M. H. van der (2006). Stagnation in Dutch housing production and suggestions for a way forward. Housing Built Environment, 21(3), 299-314. doi:10.1007/s10901-006-9051-8

Boer, Cie de. (2005). Lokaal wat kan, centraal wat moet, nieuw bestel voor woningcorporaties. The Hague, Netherlands: Aedes/VROM

Bolt G. (2008). het mantra van de mix, hoe ideaal is een gemengde wijk. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Godoy en Godoy.

Booi, T. & Koster, F. (2007). Perspectief op een wooncarrière; van woonruimteverdeling naar woonmarketing. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Bos, F. (2006). Eigen stijl van wonen. Cobouw Totaal, mei 2006. Retrieved from

Brandsen, T., Farnell, R. & Cardoso Ribeiro T. (2006). Housing Association Diversification in Europe: Profiles, Portfolios and Strategies. Coventry, United Kingdom: REXgroup.

Brink, H.H.A. van den. (2005). Vrijheid heeft geen politieke kleur. In B. Snels (Ed.), Vrijheid als ideaal (pp. 38-54). Amsterdam, Netherlands: SUN/Boom.

Broeke, R. A. van den. (1995). Voorraadbeleid bij voorhoedecorporaties: model en praktijk. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Broeke, R. A. van den. (1998). Strategisch voorraadbeleid van woningcorporaties: informatievoorziening en instrumenten. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Carmines, G. & Zeller, A. (1979). Reliability and validity assesment, Newbury Park, CA: Sage University paper.

Cairncross, L., Clapham, D., & Goodlad, R. (1994). Tenant participation and tenant power in British council housing. Public Administration, 72(2), 177-200. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.1994.tb01007.x

CFV. (2001). De cirkel weer rond, sanering en financieel toezicht in de volkshuisvesting. Laren, Netherlands: CFV.

CFV. (2002). Het vermogen en de opgaven van woningcorporaties: spanning tussen behoefte en middelen. Laren, Netherlands: CFV.

CFV. (2003). Tussen regels en rolopvatting, het invullen van professioneel intern toezicht bij woningcorporaties. Naarden, Netherlands: CFV.

CFV. (2009). Sectorbeeld realisaties woningcorporaties verslagjaar 2008. Naarden, Netherlands: CFV.

Clarke, J. (2005). New Labour's citizens: activated empowered responsibilized abandoned? Critical Social Policy, 25(4) 447-463. doi:10.1177/0261018305057024

Conger, J. A. & Canungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice. The academy of management review, 13(3), 471-482.

Conijn, J. B. S. (1995). Enkele financieel-economische grondslagen van de volkshuisvesting. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Cornelissen, E. & Brandsen, T. (2007). Handreiking 'Achter de voordeur'. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

COS (2007). Cijfers over wijken. Retreived from

Costers, J. (2005). Zonder vastgoed geen vastgoedloze corporatie. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

CSED (Commissie Sociaal-Economische Deskundigen)/SER. (2010). Rapport: Naar een integrale hervorming van de woningmarkt. The Hague, Netherlands: Sociaal-Economische Raad.

Derksen, J. (2009). Wooncarriere van koopstarters, een onderzoek naar de wooncarriere van (oud-)bewoners van KoopGarant woningen. Delft, Netherlands: TU Delft.

Deuten, J. & Kam, G. de. (2005). Weten van renderen, nieuwe wegen om maatschappelijk rendement van woningcorporaties zichtbaar te maken. SEV, Netherlands: Rotterdam.

Dirkx, H. & Kooij, R. van. (2002). Van Pand naar Klant: corporaties richten zich steeds meer op service; De case Etten-Leur. Amsterdam, Netherlands: SWP.

DNB (2008). Barsten in de voegen van de volkshuisvesting, DNB kwartaalbericht december 2008, 47-50.

Driel, A. van. (1998). Rendementsoptimalisatie door dynamisch vastgoedmanagement. Nieuwegein, Netherlands: Arko Uitgeverij.

Duyvendak, J. W. & Hurenkamp, M. (Eds.). (2004). Kiezen voor de kudde, lichte gemeenschappen en de nieuwe meerderheid. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Van Gennep.

Elsinga, M. (1995). Een eigen huis voor een smalle beurs: het ideaal voor bewoners en overheid. Delft, Netherlands: TU Delft OTB.

Elsinga, M. & Wassenberg, F. (2007). Social Housing in the Netherlands. In: Whitehead, C. & Scanlon, K. (Eds.). Social Housing in Europe. London, United Kingdom: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Elsinga, M. & Conijn, J. (2001). Woonuitgaven en woonkosten van huishoudens. DUP, Netherlands: Delft.

Elsinga, M., Blokland, T., Bortel, G. van, Klaufus, C., Kleinhans, R., Zijlstra, S. & Lamain, C. (2008). Een eigen huis, een beter leven? Effecten van verkoop van huurwoningen; kopers en huurders vergeleken. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Emans, B. (2002). Interviewen, theorie, techniek en training, Houten, Netherlands: Stenfert Kroese.

Encyclopedia Britannica (2006). Empowerment. Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Engbersen, R., Uyterlinde, M. & Sprinkhuizen, A. (2008). Burger kan het niet op eigen houtje. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 14(6), 6-10.

Eskinasi, M., Versprille, R., Pijffers, W. & Dreimüller, A. P. (Eds.). (2008). Corporaties en Vastgoedsturing. Almere, Netherlands: Nestas.

Ford, J. (2000). Risk and trust: homeowners and private mortgage insurance. Policy & Politics, 28(4), 527-540. doi:10.1332/0305573002501126

Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York, NY: Free Press.

Gastelaars, M. (1997). 'Human service' in veelvoud, een typologie van dienstverlenende organisaties. Utrecht, Netherlands: SWP.

Gent, W. van, Musterd, S. & Ostendorf, W. (2007). Van prachtwijk naar probleemcumulatiewijk. Een reactie op minister Vogelaar en anderen. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 13(6) 41-43.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Glasz, Cie. (1998). Naar profesioneel toezicht, Rapport van de Commissie Intern Toezicht Woningcorporaties. Almere, Netherlands: Aedes.

Graaf, P. van der. (2003). Bewoners als klant: een gouden kans? Een onderzoek naar de implementatie mogelijkheden van Gold Service in Nederland. Utrecht, Netherlands: Verwey-Jonker instituut.

Gronroos, C. (2000). Service management and marketing: a costumer relationship management approach. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley.

Gruis, V., Elsinga, M., Wolters, A. & Priemus, H. (2005). Tenant empowerment through innovative tenures: An analysis of Woonbron-Maasoevers' client's choice programme, 20(1), 127-147. doi:10.1080/0267303042000308769

Gruis, V. (2002). Klantgericht of klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid? Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 8(6), 34-37.

Gruis, V. (2005). Financial and Social Returns in Housing Asset Management: theory and Dutch Housing associations' practice. Urban Studies, 42(10), 1771-1794. doi:10.1080/00420980500231696

Gruis, V. H., & Nieboer, N. (2005). Government regulation versus market orientation in social housing management. In S. Stevenson (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th European Real Estate Society Conference (pp. 1-19). Dublin, Ireland: ERES/University College Dublin.

Gruis, V. H. (2000). Financieel economische grondslagen voor woningcorporaties: het bepalen van bedrijfswaarde risico's en het voorraadbeleid (PhD thesis). Delft, Netherlands: DUP Science.

Gruis, V. H. & Sprundel M. van. (2003). Strategisch voorraadbeleid Delftwonen. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Gruis, V. H., Bortel, G. van, Dankert, R., Halteren S. van, Heemskerk, M., Hoofs, G., Kuij, R. van der, Overmeeren, A. van & Zijlstra, S. (2009). Doen of regelen (MOVe Manifest). Een studie voor het MOVe-manifest over de positionering en organisatie van maatschappelijk ondernemende corporaties. Delft, Netherlands: TU Delft.

Gruis, V. H., Tsenkova, S. and Nieboer, N. (2009). Management of privatised Housing, international policies and practice. Chichester, United Kingdom: Blackwell-Wiley.

Gurney, C. (1999). Pride and prejudice: Discourses of Normalisation in Public and Private Accounts of Home Ownership. Housing Studies 14(2), 163-183. doi:10.1080/02673039982902

Haan, H. de. (2008). Projects for collective tenants. (unpublished paper). Delft, Netherlands: TU Delft.

Haffner, M. E. A. (1992). Eigen woning in de EG: fiscale en overige instrumenten. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Harloe, M. (1995). The peoples home, social rented housing in Europe and America. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.

Heusden, R. van. (2006). ZAV keuzevrijheid bewoners. Delft, Netherlands: TU Delft.

Hirschman, A. O. (1970). exit, voice and loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organizations and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard university press.

Hirschman, A. O. (1978). "Exit, Voice and Loyalty": Further reflections and a survey of recent contributions. Social Science Information, 13(1), 7-26. doi:10.1177/053901847401300101

Hiscock, R., Kearns, A., Macintyre, S. & Ellaway, A. (2001). Ontological security and Psycho-Social Benefits from the Home: Qualitative Evidence on Issues of Tenure. Housing, Theory and Society, 18(1-2), 50-66. doi:10.1080/14036090120617

Hoofs, G. & Reek, M. (2006). Van Krokodillenvijver naar kweekvijver: verslag studiedag De Zin en Onzin van de onrendabele top. VHV Bulletin Zoeken naar Richting, 33(3) 57-59.

Huisman, C. A. & Westra, H. (1983). Bewonersparticipatie bij het beheer in woningcorporaties; bewerking van een afstudeerverslag. Delft, Netherlands: RIW-instituut voor Volkshuisvestingsonderzoek.

Itzhaky, H. & York, A. S. (2000). Sociopolitical control and empowerment: an extended replication. Journal of community psychology, 28(4) 407-415.

Jong, J. de. (2006). Achter de Voordeur, woonmaatschappelijk werk nieuwe stijl verkenning projecten. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Kamp, H. (2003). KST 28600 Actieprogramma herstructurering (56 wijken selectie). The Hague, Netherlands: Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal.

Kearns, A. & Parkinson, M. (2001). The Significance of Neighbourhood. Urban Studies, 38(12), 2103-2110. doi:10.1080/00420980120087063

Kearns, A., Hiscock, R., Ellaway, A. & MCintyre, S. (2000). Beyond Four Walls; The Psycho-social Benefits of Home: Evidence from West Central Scotland. Housing Studies, 15(3), 387-410. doi:10.1080/02673030050009249

Keil, A. (2006). New Urban Governance Processes on the Level of Neighbourhoods. European Planning Studies, 14(3) 335-364. doi:10.1080/09654310500420826

Kemeny, J. (1992). Housing and social theory. London, United Kingdom: Routlegde.

Kempen, B. G. A. van & Velzen, N. van (1988). Werken aan Wonen: 75 jaar nationale woningraad. Almere, Netherlands: NWR.

Kempen, R. van & Priemus, H. (2001). De Nederlandse huursector: toenemende eenzijdigheid. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 7(3), 12-18.

Kempen, R. van & Priemus, H. (2002). Revolution in Social Housing in the Netherlands: Possible Effects of New Housing Policies. Urban Studies, 39(2), 237-253. doi:10.1080/00420980120102948

Kieffer, C. (1984). Citizen empowerment, a developmental perspective. Prevention in human services, 3(2-3), 9-36. doi:10.1300/J293v03n02_03

King, P. (2006). Choice and the end of social housing. London, United Kingdom: IEA.

Kleijn, G. de. (1985). De staat van de stadsvernieuwing. (Doctoral dissertation, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands).

Kleinhans, R., Boonstra, N., Veldboer, L. & Duyvendak, J. W. (2008). Sociale stijging door herstructurering. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 14(1), 33-36.

Kleinhans, R. J. (2005). Sociale implicaties van herstructurering en herhuisvesting. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Kleit, R. & Rohe, W. (2005). Using public housing to achieve self-sufficiency: can we predict success? Housing Studies, 20(1), 81-105. doi:10.1080/0267303042000308741

Klemisch-Ahlert, M. (1993). Freedom of choice: A comparison of different rankings of opportunity sets. Social Choice and Welfare, 10(3), 189-207.

Koning, P. en Leuvensteijn, M. van. (2010). De woningcorporaties uit de verdwijndriehoek, CPB document no202. The Hague, Netherlands: Centraal Planbureau.

Koopman, M. & Vos, M. (2009). Tenant-empowerment through choice of tenure, in: Koopman, M., Mossel, J. H. van and Straub, A. (Eds.). Performance measurement in the Dutch social rented sector. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Kotler, P. (1997). Marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall International.

Kramer, B. (2008). Hybrid forms of sale: valuation and risk for housing corporations. Property Research Quarterly (4), 49-56.

Kremers, J. J. M., (2008). Van een aanbodgestuurde naar een meer vraaggestuurde woningmarkt: advies aanbodzijde woningmarkt en financiering woningbouw. Rapport Werkgroep Aanbodzijde Woningmarkt en Financiering Woningbouw. Retrieved from Rijksoverheid website:

Kromhout, S., Burger, P. & Cozijnsen, E. (2010). Evaluatie huur op maat, tussenevaluatie hoofdrapport. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Kromhout, S., Daalen, G. van, Davis, S. & Zandstra, A. (RIGO) (2006). woonruimteverdeling opnieuw bekeken; bouwstenen voor discussie. Amsterdam/Delft, Netherlands: RIGO/OTB.

Kromwijk, M. & Scherpenisse, R. (2003). Wonen moet meer van mensen worden. Een essay over bouwen aan de corporatie van de 21ste eeu. Retrieved from the building business website:

Kruythoff, H. (2008). Tenant participation in the Netherlands: the role of laws covenants and (power) positions. Housing Studies, 23(4), 637-659. doi:10.1080/02673030802116730

Land, M. van der & Doff, W. (2009). Negative and positive freedom of choice in dutch social housing. In H. J. Rosemann, Q. Lei & D. A. Sepulveda Carmona (Eds.), Conference Proceedings: The New Urban Question. Urbanism beyond Neo-Liberalism. (pp. 323-334). Delft: IFoU.

Lane, J. E. (2000). New Public Sector Management. London, United Kingdom: Macmillan.

Lans, J. van der. (2007). ER OP AF. De leefwereld als spreekkamer. Retrieved from the Jos van der Lans website:

Lans, J. van der, (2008). Ontregelen. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Augustus.

Lawler, E. E. (1973). Motivation in work organizations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Lee, M. & Koh, J. (2001). Is empowerment really a new concept? International journal of human resource management, 12(4), 681-695. doi:10.1080/713769649

Leemhuis, Cie. (2005). verbetering positie en zeggenschap huurders, advies van de commissie Zeggenschap en versterking posisite huurders (-organisaties). The Hague, Netherlands: VROM.

Levenson, H. (1974). Activism and powerfull others: distinctions within the concept of internal-external control. Journal of personality assessment, 38(4), 337-383. doi:10.1080/00223891.1974.10119988

Lupi, T. & Schelling, D. (2010). 'Achter de voordeur' moet meer zijn dan signaleren, studie laat zien: de aanpak is meer gebaseerd op onderbuikgevoelens dan effect. Tijdschrift voor Sociale Vraagstukken, (3) 8-11.

Malpass, P. (2006). Housing Policy in an "opportunity society" home ownership and the amplification of inequality. In J. Doling & M. Elsinga (Eds.), Homeownership, getting in, getting from, getting out. Part II (pp. 109-121). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS press.

Malpass, P. (2008). Housing and the new welfare state: wobbly pillar or cornerstone? Housing studies, 23(1), 1-19. doi:10.1080/02673030701731100

Marcuse, P. (1994). Property rights tenure and ownership: towards clarity in concept. In: Danermark B. and Elander, I. (Eds.). Social rented housing in Europe: policy tenure and design. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Marlet, G., Poort, J., Woerkens, C. van & Janssen, K. S. (2009). De baat op straat. SEO Economisch Onderzoek, Netherlands: Amsterdam.

McKee, K. & Cooper, V. (2008). 'The Paradox of Tenant Empowerment: Regulatory and Liberatory Possibilities'. Housing Theory and Society, 25(2), 1-15. doi:10.1080/14036090701657363

Miles, M. E., Haney, R. L. & Berens, G. (1996). Real estate development; principles and process (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: ULI.

Ministerie van Financiën. (2010). Rapport brede heroverwegingen. The Hague, Netherlands: Inspectie der Rijksfinancien.

Mossel, H. J. van. (2008). The purchasing of maintenance service delivery in social housing management, optimizing commodity strategy for delivering maintanence services to tenants. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS press.

Mossel, H. J. van & Straub, A. (2009). The need for customizing maintenance services in social housing. Construction management economics, 27(2), 135-151. doi:10.1080/01446190802695766

Mulder, K. (Laaglandadvies) (2009). Buurtbewoners in Balans. The Hague, Netherlands: VROM.

Neele, J. (2008). Van huur- naar koopwoning: effecten van verkoop van huurwoningen, Amsterdam, Netherlands: RIGO.

Nieboer, N. (2003). Strategisch beslissen over het woningbezit: voorraadbeleid van Nederlandse woningcorporaties en vastgoedbeleggers. (Doctoral dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands).

Nieboer, N. (2005). How strategic is housing asset management of institutional real estate investors? Property Management, 23(1) 22-32.

Nieboer, N. (2009). Het lange koord tussen portefeuillebeleid en investeringen van woningcorporaties. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS press.

Noordenne, M. van & Vos, M. (2006). Atlas Koopvarianten, gids voor betaalbaar kopen, Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Noordenne, M. van, Bakker, R. & Bal, M. (2009). Cashflow verzekeren met koopvarianten en Te Woon. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 15(5), 21-25.

Normann, R. (1991). Service management: strategy and leadership in service business. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley.

NTMO. (2003). De waarde van de maatschappelijke onderneming geborgd, Hilversum, Netherlands: NTMO.

NVB & OTB. (2010). Huurders in Profiel, Onderzoek naar wensen van potentiële huurders. Amsterdam/Delft, Netherlands: NVB/OTB.

OpMaat (2009). Een koopwoning voor meer mensen bereikbaar. (Interview with Rein Bakker, director Opmaat). Retrieved from Opmaat website:

OpMaat. (2010). Missie en bedrijfsgegevens. Retrieved from

Os, P. van. (2007). Mensen, stenen, geld. Het beleidsproces bij woningcorporaties. Amsterdam, Netherlands: RIGO.

Overmeeren, A. J. van, & Zijlstra, S. (2009). Changing planning by Dutch Housing Associations - from supply to demand-driven and from customer to area-driven strategic housing management. In L. Qu, C. Yang, X. Hui & D. A. Sepulveda (Eds.), The new urban question: urbanism beyond neo-liberalism 4th conference of the international forum on urbanism (pp. 1409-1414). Delft: IFoU.

Oxley, M., Elsinga, M., Haffner, M. & Heijden, H. van der (2010). Competition and Social Rented Housing. Housing Theory and Society, 27(4), 1-19. doi:10.1080/14036090903326395

Papa, O., Bosch, N. & Ket, M. (2002). De effecten van verkoop van sociale huurwoningen. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Pas, B., Pouwels, J. & Kropman, J. (1983). Huren en kopen: achtergronden en konsekwenties. Nijmegen, Netherlands: ITS.

Perkins, D. D. (1995). Speaking Truth to Power: Empowerment Ideology as Social Intervention and Policy. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(5), 765-794. doi:10.1007/BF02506991

Perkins, D. D. & Zimmerman, M. A. (1995). Empowerment Theory research and application. American Journal of Community psychology, 23(5), 569-579. doi:10.1007/BF02506982

Philippa, C. (2005). Vier vragen over VVE-beheer. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Plasmeijer, L. (2006). De bereikbaarheid van de koopsector, de invloed van ondersteunende instrumenten op de bereikbaarheid van de koopsector voor koopstarters. Delft, Netherlands: TU Delft.

Poorter, K. (2006). Quickscan Belanghoudersparticipatie. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Pothoff, W. (2003). Corporaties kunnen hybride financiering massaal aanbieden. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Priemus, H. (1978). Volkshuisvesting; begrippen, problemen, beleid. Alphen a/d Rijn, Netherlands: Samson.

Priemus, H. (1984). verhuistheorieen en de verdeling van de woninvoorraad: volkshuisvesting in theorie en praktijk. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Priemus, H. (1997). Growth and stagnation in social housing: What is 'social' in the social rented sector? Housing Studies, 12(4), 549-560. doi:10.1080/02673039708720915

Priemus, H. (2010, June 12th). Hypotheekrenteaftrek als breekpunt, NRC-Handelsblad. Retrieved from

Priemus, H. & Dieleman, F. (2002). Social Housing Policy in the European Union: Past, Present and Perspectives. Urban Studies, 39(2), 191-200. doi:10.1080/00420980120102911

Provoost, R. & Forschelen-Jansen, V. (2007). Onderzoek Evaluatie Te Woon. Rotterdam, Netherlands: USP Marketing consultancy.

Putters, K. (2002). Vraagsturend versus vraaggestuurd ondernemen in de gezondheidszorg. Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, 11(5), 188-198.

Rappaport, J. (1989). In praise of paradox: a social policy of empowerment over prevention. American Journal of Community psychology, 9(1). 1-25. doi:10.1007/BF00896357

RAVO (Raad voor de volkshuisvesting) (1983). Advies inzake: maatschappelijk gebonden eigendom (adviesnr 111). The Hague, Netherlands: RAVO.

Riseborough, M. (1998). More control and choice for users? Involving tenants in social housing management. In: Marsh, A. and Mullins, D. (Eds.). Housing and Public Policy: Citizenship, Choice and Control. Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University Press.

Rohe, W. M. & Basolo, V. (1997). Long term effects of home ownership on the self perceptions and social interaction of low-income persons. Environment and Behavior, 29(6), 793-819. doi:10.1177/0013916597296004

Rohe, W. M. & Stegman, M. A. (1994). The Effects of Homeownership: on the Self-Esteem, Perceived Control and Life Satisfaction of Low-Income People. Journal of the American Planning Association, 60(2), 173-184. doi:10.1080/01944369408975571

Ronald, R. (2008). The ideology of homeownership, homeowner societies and the role of housing. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable. American Psychologist, 45(4), 489-493.

Rotterdam (2010). Collegedoelstellingen Sociaal ( Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Gemeente Rotterdam.

Rowlands, R. & Gurney, C. M. (2001). Young people's perceptions of housing tenure: a case study in the socialization of tenure prejudice. Housing, Theory and Society, 17(3), 121-130. doi:10.1080/14036090051084423

Saunders, P. (1990). A Nation of Homeowners. London: Unwin Hyman.

Schaar, J. van der (1981). De sector-indeling en visies op de volkshuisvesting In Stuurgroep Gebouwde Omgeving. (1981), Gebouwde omgeving: gebruik beheer en inrichting. Eindrapport in het kader van het strutuuronderzoek bouwnijverheid. Deel 4. (pp. 155-208). The Hague, Netherlands: Staatsuitgeverij.

Schaar, J. van der (1987). Groei en bloei van het Nederlandse volkshuisvestingsbeleid. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Schaar, J. van der (1991). Volkshuisvesting een zaak van beleid. Utrecht, Netherlands: Aula.

Scherpenisse, R. & Vos, M. (2000). Keuzevrijheid als leidraad voor wonen, Woonbron-Maasoevers biedt koop-huurvarianten. Aedes Magazine, (15) 10-13.

Schwartz, B. (2004). The paradox of choice: why more is less. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

SCP (2000). Nederland in Europa, social en cultureel rapport 2000. The Hague, Netherlands: Sociaal-Cultureel Planbureau.

Sen, A. (1988). Freedom of choice, concept and Content. European Economic review, 32(2-3), 269-294. doi:10.1016/0014-2921(88)90173-0

Sennett, R. (2007). The Culture of the New Capitalism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

SER (2005). Ondernemerschap voor de publieke zaak (advies). The Hague, Netherlands: Sociaal-Economische Raad.

SEV (1993). Tussen kopen en huren; de voordelen voor verhuurders, eigenaar-bewoners en huurders berekend en op een rij gezet. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

SEV/Urbannerdam (2010). Evaluatie gemengde complexen. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Shlay, A. B. & Holupka, C. S. (1992). Steps toward independence - evaluating an integrated service program for public-housing residents. Evaluation Review, 16(5), 508-533. doi:10.1177/0193841X9201600504

Silverman, R. M. (2009). Sandwiched between patronage and bureaucracy: the plight of citizen participation in community based housing organizations in the US. Urban Studies, 46(1), 3-25. doi:10.1177/0042098008098634

Singelenberg, J. (2007). Power to the people: empowerment in de praktijk. SEV experiment. 23 (1).

Singelenberg, J. (SEV) (2006). Opvang in Nederland denkt nog steeds sterk in termen van groepswonen. Nul20, 5 (27).

Siraa, H. T. (1983). De geschiedenis van het ministerie van volkshuisvesting en ruimtelijke ordening. Zoetermeer, Netherlands: MVROM.

Smith, S. J. (2008). Owner-occupation: at home with a hybrid of money and materials. Environment and Planning A, 40(3), 520-535. doi:10.1068/a38423

Somerville, P. (1998). Empowerment through residence. Housing Studies, 13(2), 233-257.

Somerville, P. (2004, April). Transforming Council Housing. Paper presented at the Housing Studies Association conference. Sheffield, United Kingdom: Sheffield Hallam University. Retrieved from University of York website:

Somerville, P. & Steele, A. (1999). Making oneself at home: the mediation of residential action. International journal of urban and regional research, 23(1), 88-102. doi:10.1111/1468-2427.00180

Sour, A. (2009). 169 klushuizen van experiment tot instrument. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Episode.

Sterkenburg, W. & Noordenne, M. van (2002). Eigendomsneutraal aanbieden. Aedes magazine. Retrieved from

Straub, A. (2001). Technisch beheer door woningcorporaties in de 21e eeuw: professioneel klantgericht en duurzaam. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Stuij, Y. (2005). Wie betaalt bepaalt. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 11(6), 46-50.

Stuurgroep Gebouwde Omgeving (1981). Gebouwde omgeving: gebruik beheer en inrichting (eindrapport in het kader van het strutuuronderzoek bouwnijverheid). The Hague, Netherlands: Staatsuitgeverij.

Sztompka, P. (1999). Trust: A Sociological Theory. Cambrigde, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Thaler, R. H. & Sunstein, C. R. (2009). Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. London: Penguin Books.

Thomas, K. W. & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An "Interpretive" Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation. The Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681.

Thomsen, A. F. (2006). Levensloop van woningen [lecture notes]. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture.

Thomsen, A. F. & Flier, C. L. van der (2006). Life cycle of dwellings; a conceptual model based on Dutch practice. In O. Ural, R. Iovino, A. Frattari, F. Fascia & R. Albatici (Eds.), Proceedings - XXXIV IAHS World Congress Sustainable housing design - Emphasizing urban housing (pp. 1-17). Napels, Italy: Luciano Editore.

Thomsen, A. F. & Flier, C. L. van der (2006). Life cycle of dwellings and demolition by Dutch housing associations. In V. H. Gruis, H. J. Visscher & R. J. Kleinhans (Eds.), Sustainable neighbourhood transformation (pp. 23-41). Amsterdam: IOS press.

Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave, the classic study of tomorrow. New York, NY: Bantam books.

Tonkens, E. (2003/2008). Mondige burgers getemde professionals, (vierde druk) Utrecht, Netherlands: Van Gennep.

Tonkens, E. (2009). Tussen onderschatten en overvragen, actief burgerschap en activerende organisaties in de wijk. Amsterdam, Netherlands: SUN-trancity.

Trappenburg, M. (2010, May 15th). Incidenten worden niet voorkomen door steeds nieuwe regels; ze gebeuren gewoon wen er maar aan. NRC Handelsblad. Opinie & Debat, pp. 4-5.

Tuinen, E. Van (2008). Succesfactoren voor goede bewonersparticipatie. VHV Bulletin Groei en Bloei, 35(2), 28-29.

USP (2008). Huurder staat open voor koop eigen woning. Rotterdam, Netherlands: USP Marketing Consultancy.

Van Dale (2005). Woordenboek Nederlands, 14e editie. Utrecht, Netherlands: Van Dale.

Veldhuis, R. (1997). Education for democratic citizenship; core competencies, variables and international activities. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

Uffelen, X. van. (2010, May 11th). Huren wordt onbereikbaar voor modaal. Volkskrant. Retrieved from

Vliet, J. M. van (1993). Integraal voorraadbeheer. Delft, Netherlands: DUP.

Vogelaar, E. (2007). KST 30995 aanpak wijken. The Hague, Netherlands: Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal.

Vos, M. (2008). Opmaat voor een nieuwe woontoeslag: meer woningen, meer keuzevrijheid en betere doorstroming. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 14(4), 17-21.

Vos, M. L. & Doorn, K. van (2004). Empowerment: over laten en doen. Delft, Netherlands: Eburon.

Vos, M., Haffner, M., Elsinga, M. & Hoekstra, J. (2008). Huren en kopen is ons even lief. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Vos, M., Sprundel, M. van, Lagerweij, L. & Heide, G. de (2005). Evaluatie Te Woon, een woning kopen of een woning huren? Met Te Woon kiest de klant zelf. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Woonbron.

Vreeze, N. de (1993). Woningbouw inspiratie en ambities: kwalitatieve grondslagen van de sociale woningbouw in Nederland. Almere, Netherlands: NWR.

Vries, P. de & Boelhouwer, P. (2004). Lange termijn evenwicht op de koopwoningmarkt, relatie woningprijs, inkomen en woningproductie. Zeist, Netherlands: DGW/Nethur.

Vries, P. de & Boelhouwer, P. J. (2004). Lange termijn evenwicht op de koopwoningmarkt, relatie woningprijs, inkomen en woningproductie. Delft, Netherlands: DWG/Nethur partnership.

VROM (1993). Nota volkshuisvesting in de jaren negentig van bouwen naar wonen. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (1997). Nota stedelijke vernieuwing. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (2000). Nota Wonen in de 21e eeuw, mensen wensen wonen. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (2001). Nota Wonen: Mensen Wensen Wonen; Wonen in de 21e eeuw. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (2002). Artikel 70 lid 1 van de woningwet (wetten online). The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (2002). BBSH (wetten online). The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (2002). Cijfers over wonen 2002. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2002). WWS (wetten online). The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2003). Gescheiden markten? De ontwikkelingen op de huur- en koopwoningmarkt. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2006). Kamerbrief "onderhandse vervreemding". The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2006). Ruimte geven bescherming bieden. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM (2006). WoonOnderzoek Nederland (WoON). The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2007). Investeren in mensen; werk en opleiding in de stedelijke vernieuwing. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2007a). Cijfers over Wonen 2006: Feiten over mensen, wensen, wonen. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2007b). Actieplan krachtwijken: van aandachtswijk naar krachtwijk. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2008). DGWWI/W2008061861. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2008a). Structuurvisie Randstad 2040. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2009). Overlegwet (wetten online). The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM. (2010). Woningbouwthermometer. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROM & CBS. (2010). Het wonen overwogen, de resultaten van het WoonOnderzoek 2009. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministerie van VROM.

VROMraad. (1999). Huurbeleid met contractvrijheid. The Hague, Netherlands: VROMraad.

VROMraad. (2001). Grotestedenbeleid, voortzetten en verbouwen. The Hague, Netherlands: VROMraad.

VROMraad. (2004). Op eigen kracht, eigenwoningbezit in Nederland. The Hague, Netherlands: VROMraad.

VROMraad. (2006). Stad en Stijging: Sociale stijging als leidraad voor stedelijke vernieuwing. The Hague, Netherlands: OBT.

VROMraad. (2007). Tijd voor keuzes: Perspectief op een woningmarkt in balans. The Hague, Netherlands: OBT.

Waal, S. P. M. de. (2008). Nieuwe strategieen voor het publieke domein. Utrecht, Netherlands: Lemma.

Wester, F. & Peters, V. (2004). Kwalitatieve Analyse, uitgangspunten en procedures. Bussum, Netherlands: Coutinho.

Westra, H. (2009). PO, CPO, CGO en meer…. VHV Bulletin Groei en Bloei, 35(2-3) 34-35.

Wiersma, R. (2010). Kredietcrisis leidt tot hogere vennootschapsbelasting corporaties. VHV Bulletin Creatief met Crisis, 37(2), 15-18.

WIF. (2010). Missie wooninvesteringsfonds 2010. Zeist, Netherlands: WIF.

Williams, O. P. (1971). Metropolitan political analysis, New York, NY: Free Press of Glencoe.

Willis, P. (1977). Learning to Labour. How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Farnborough, United Kingdom: Saxon House.

Wolters, A. & Verhage, R. (2001). Concurrentie in corporatieland. Delft, Netherlands: Nethur.

Woonbron. (2007). Jaarverslag 2006: annual report 2006.

Woonbron. (2007). Cooptatie ja of nee, verslag zomerdebat coöptatie. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Woonbron.

Woonbron. (2008). Jaarverslag 2007: annual report 2007.

Woonbron. (2010). Jaarverslag 2009: annual report 2009.

WRR. (2005). Vertrouwen in de buurt. Amsterdam, Netherlands: AUP.

Zandstra, A. (2008). Empowerment kan effect hebben op woonbeleid. Tijdschrift voor de volkshuisvesting, 14(6), 17-22.

Zeelenberg, S. & Kromhout, S. (RIGO) (2009). Loting revisited: recente ervaringen onder de loep. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 15(6), 8-22.

Zijlstra, S. (2006). Klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid: productvernieuwing door corporaties. Real Estate Magazine, 9(46), 29-33.

Zijlstra, S. (2006b). Vraaggestuurde initiatieven: nog geen aansluiting op de markt. Paper presented at the Nirov Discussiedagen Bouwen en Wonen. Zeist, Netherlands.

Zijlstra, S. (2007). A load of demand driven housing management initiatives, waiting for the first effects. Paper presented at the ENHR Conference Sustainable urban areas conference paper. Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Zijlstra, S. (2009). Choosing tenure, is that a real choice? Paper presented at the ENHR Conference Changing housing markets: integration and segmentation conference paper. Prague, Czech Republic.

Zijlstra, S. (2009). De effecten van Te Woon: verschillen in visies bij bewoners en corporatie. In Musterd, S. & Ostendorf, W. (Eds.), Problemen in wijken of probleemwijken (pp. 157-167). Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum.

Zijlstra, S. (2009). Verhuizen, liever niet, Interview met Ad Vingerhoets. VHV Bulletin Op Stap, 37(1), 23-27.

Zijlstra, S. (2010). The Clients' role in Dutch Housing management. Paper presented at the ENHR Conference Urban dynamics and housing change. Istanbul, Turkey.

Zijlstra, S. & Gruis, V. H. (2008a). The Client's Choice Programme in the Eyes of the Tenants: a Glimpse of (Non) Effects of Freedom of Choice in Social Housing Tenure. Paper presented at the ENHR Conference Shrinking Cities, Sprawling Suburbs, Changing Countrysides. Dublin, Ireland.

Zijlstra, S. & Gruis, V. H. (2008c). The Client's Choice Programme: perceptions of housing associations and tenants. Paper presented at International Conference Building on Homeownership: Housing Policies and Social Strategies. Delft, Netherlands.

Zijlstra, S. & Gruis, V. H. (2009). Tenants' expectations of the 'Clients' Choice Programme', Urbani Izziv, 20(2), 83-90.

Zijlstra, S. & Deuten, J. (2010). Effectenarena verkoop huurwoningen. Rotterdam, Netherlands: SEV.

Zijlstra, S. & Gruis, V. H. (2006). Klantgestuurd voorraadbeleid: meer invloed huurders geen panacee voor kwalitatieve woningnood. Property Research Quarterly, 5(4), 41-47.

Zijlstra, S. & Gruis, V. H. (2008). Corporaties hebben hogere verwachtingen van Te Woon dan bewoners. Tijdschrift voor de Volkshuisvesting, 14(4), 46-50.

Zimmerman, M. A. & Rappaport, J. (1988). Citizen participation perceived control and psychological empowerment. American Journal of community psychology, 16(5), 725-750. doi:10.1007/BF00930023

Zimmerman, M. A. (1995). Psychological Empowerment: Issues and Illustrations. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(5), 581-598. doi:10.1007/BF02506983


Copyright (c) 2014 Sake Zijlstra

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.